August 23, 2004

4×4對環境的衝擊再添一筆

4by4.jpg

............曾經,我也有過這個莽撞的夢想,來一輛高底盤的車子,是多麼帥氣的展現。
來到歐洲,看到重視能源、重視環境議題的歐洲人,她們擁有比我們高的國民所得,開的卻是比我們小的車子,因為省能也省錢,高耗能的高底盤車輛更是少之又少................

上個星期,國際地理學年會在蘇格蘭的Glasgow盛大舉辦,雖然聽說是個大拜拜的大型會議,參與者有四千人之多,但還是有些不錯的議題值得討論。

其中一位牛津大學地裡系教授Andrew Goudie提出「四輪傳動車輛對沙塵暴的劇烈影響」,引起我極大的興趣。

在台灣,許多人都以擁有一台四輪傳動、高底盤的車為豪,小小的台灣,總是塞車的都市街道裡,開著這麼一輛龐然大物,的確是個奇怪的現象,也凸顯了台灣人的心態。約一兩年前,福特Escape踏伐山林的廣告,沈文程主持的山林探險節目,開著四輪傳動車勇闖森林,曾經在國內引起宣然大波,終於開始有聲音檢討這個嚴重的環境衝擊問題。只是不知道這樣的聲音,到底影響了多少台灣用車人的意願,車子的銷售量是否也因此有所改變。

曾經,我也有過這個莽撞的夢想,來一輛高底盤的車子,是多麼帥氣的展現。
來到歐洲,看到重視能源、重視環境議題的歐洲人,她們擁有比我們高的國民所得,開的卻是比我們小的車子,因為省能也省錢,高耗能的高底盤車輛更是少之又少。

這份牛津大學的研究報告中嚴重指控「4×4取代沙漠中的駱駝,引起全世界的沙塵暴」。其中最主要的原因是「4×4的車輛取代了沙漠中原有的駱駝」,沒有限制的在沙漠中橫行,到處留下輪胎的軌跡,嚴重破壞了保護沙漠土地表層的地衣植物與砂石,其嚴重程度已超乎人類所想像。

根據研究指出,每一年,風會帶著非洲撒哈拉沙漠二十到三十億公噸的沙塵,飄洋過海來到格陵蘭和美國大陸。沙塵暴從撒哈拉沙漠擴散開來的速度,已經比五十年前增加十倍,不僅造成全球的氣候變遷,威脅人類的健康,也大量破壞海洋中的珊瑚礁生態。英國每年春季的紅雨也逐年增加,夏季從上空俯瞰歐洲阿爾卑斯山脈,也可以輕易看見沙塵覆蓋的顏色。

雖然這些沙塵是極小的石英顆粒,甚至比沙還細小,但是它夾雜著鹽分及大量的殺蟲劑、除草劑,這些物質可能造成嚴重的健康問題,其中的細菌更可能造成口蹄疫等嚴重傳染病。例如中亞的鹹海已經枯竭,從這裡飄散出去的沙塵也造成嚴重威脅,導因於當初河流中注入太多的污染物「棉」。因為種植棉花時,噴灑了大量殺蟲劑,造成海床被有毒的殺蟲劑嚴重污染,而現在海床化成沙塵四處飄散,人類吸了這含有毒的沙塵,容易造成呼吸道過敏、感染、發炎。

科學家甚至發現,沙塵暴越過三千英里,造成加勒比海的珊瑚礁大量死亡。沙塵暴更遠飄到地球極北端的格陵蘭,沙塵覆蓋在冰原上層,加速冰原的溶化,進而造成全球海平面的上升。

沙塵落進海洋,提供了養分,造成浮游生物大量繁殖,耗盡水中的二氧化碳,冷卻了海水表面的溫度,減少大氣中雲、雨的量,一連串環境中的惡性循環,似乎越來越嚴重。

沙漠中的沙塵,來自於乾涸的鹽湖或海,因此沙塵中含有大量鹽分,這些含鹽量高的沙塵如果落在農地上,會導致土地枯竭,接著就越來越多的土地沙漠化。

美國每年也因為沙塵暴造成數人死亡,尤其佛羅里達州每年接收了來自非洲的沙塵量,占了美國的50﹪以上,造成當地居民嚴重的呼吸道感染問題。

中國大陸,也是飽受沙塵暴威脅的地區,甚至在台灣的我們都可以感受到其嚴重性,許多人擔心這可能會影響2008年的北京奧運。

一個值得我們警惕的問題,關心著環境與自我的健康,跟4×4說再見吧!

由 mrs.turtle 發表於 August 23, 2004 09:55 PM | 引用
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