March 16, 2011

【不列顛文件】序(上)

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新書的序言...《從Tate Modern十週年談起》

2010年5月,倫敦泰晤士河南岸的泰德現代美術館歡慶了10歲生日。自千禧年開幕以來,它開創了美術館的新局面,影響所及不只是倫敦、英國的美術館,甚至是全世界的美術館。尤其是渦輪機廳系列展的成功經驗,開啟了裝置藝術新風潮,其可貴之處,在於它的公共性與自由度,而這裡對於藝術家而言更是個莫大的挑戰,整個過程當中,最吸引人的往往是回到「人」的本質,藝術作品在指定的空間中,讓參與者用一種全新的概念去思考藝術與自身的關係,讓展覽不只是靜態的展覽,也兼顧參與性、互動性,讓參觀者對「藝術」這件事產生更深刻的共鳴。

21世紀美術館新定義

過去10年來,世界各國出現了許多新形態的美術館與藝廊,拜訪這些藝文空間的人口也大幅增加,根據泰德現代美術館自己的調查指出,43%的訪客進入泰德現代美術館是為了「藝術」,換言之,另有57%的民眾是為了其它目的前來,可能是休憩、可能是約會、可能是用餐、可能是喝咖啡、可能是購物、也可能是逛書店,各種過去無法想像的理由,都成了現代人上美術館的藉口,所以21世紀的美術館,已不再是單純的美術館,它的功能與性質正隨著時代漸進地轉型中。

面對這樣的轉變,對於美術館的重新定位,要如何滿足新世代不同的需求,又如何在兼顧美術館的基本功能中永續經營,是個值得探索的課題。而從這幾年來的改變,可以歸納出21世紀美術館著重的三大方向:「館藏(collection)」,用合理的價格收藏多元的新世代藝術創作,以豐富館藏;「策展概念(curating)」,發掘具創意的策展人,帶入策展新意,以嶄新的方式行銷自己;「建築(architecture)」,建築空間是21世紀的新焦點,與建築大師合作,量身打造一座吸引人的建築。

傳統的美術館概念,顯然已無法符合當代藝術的多元呈現與現代人的使用需求,因此靠著全新的建築空間與突破傳統的展覽形式來找尋創意,打破舊有的封閉思維,是當今世界美術館與相關藝文機構的風潮。但這麼做其實也很危險,美術館很容易成了建築師的個人舞台,甚至與當地的文化和藝術脫軌,又因為大師級建築的光芒無法恣意評論,建築受重視的程度往往超越藝術本身,雖然兩者在彼此的創意革新中可以相輔相成,但現階段看來似乎已模糊焦點,例如畢爾包的古根漢美術館。

台灣也正循著這樣的模式,積極邀請國際級大師設計了與台灣風土民情不相融的建築精品,這樣的作法是否恰當,恐怕還有許多討論的空間。因為如此一來,可能造成美術館空有其名、也虛有其表,甚至只是個被過度包裝與美化的藝文空間,美術館的概念與美意只是不斷的被消費,也混淆了美術館最根本的價值。

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文化+創意=產業

英國是個歷史輝煌的古老國度,在這個厚實的基礎之上,不斷地加入新的創意與概念,賦予了現代英國全新的優勢。英國的創意產業包含了廣告、建築、藝術、手工藝、設計、時尚、電影、互動休閒軟體、音樂、表演藝術、軟體與電腦、廣播電視等13大項。創意產業佔了英國GDP的8.2%,更為首都倫敦創造了52萬5千個就業機會,佔了倫敦就業人口的1/5,年成長率更超過了金融業。不同創意產業的項目彼此之間也能互相加乘,例如藝術、音樂、文學、建築、設計等,為電視、電影、廣播帶來了新的啟發,而這些成功的經驗又刺激了新的科技發展,這整個過程當中,「創意」就是產業。

過去10年,我們也不斷想要仿效這個成功的模式,卻似乎沒有真正體認到,文化創意產業雖然可以帶來人潮與商機,但在沒有厚實根基的社會架構中,盲從也可能大量消耗文化本身,充其量只是行文化之名,而無文化之實。尤其我們的許多文化活動,只是將文化與藝術以休閒娛樂的方式辦理,真正的文化底蘊反而被埋沒了。

過去台灣的十二大建設,瘋狂的在各縣市蓋文化中心,現在則花更多的經費興建如台中的國家音樂廳、高雄的衛武營、台北的台北藝術中心等這類嶄新的大型藝文空間,反而捨棄了與舊有文化連結的大型閒置空間,蓋出了誇張龐大的新建築量體,與台灣其實格格不入。台灣的城市,不會因為有了幾棟漂亮的建築,就會提升吸引力,要讓人真切感受到一個城市的文化厚度、生命力與美感,才可能累積自己的實力。其中最大的問題在於,我們的生活藝術與美學教育長期匱乏,尤其台灣政治與政策的不成熟,主政者要的只是立竿見影的政績,沒有人願意去做紮根的基礎工作,而文化藝術活動所需要的,正是時間與經驗的長期累積。

英國的文化創意產業能成功,就在於他們幾百年來所累積的文化實力,這是無法速成的。英國是個非常純熟的社會,每個環節都有成熟的模式與機制運作,政策的執行不會因為執政者的更動而又重新來過。西方的美學素養也絕非只有時間的累積,而是透過紮實的國民藝術教育,不只是學校的藝術教育,還有社會教育資源中的美術館與博物館。維多利亞時期的英國,已經意識到國民的美學品味與國家競爭力之間的關係,藉由美學素養刺激工藝產品的消費,提升了生活美學、也刺激了工業生產,而這正是英國文化創意產業重要的基礎與成功的原因之一。

(未完待續...)

由 mrs.turtle 發表於 March 16, 2011 06:13 PM
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liuchunkai 發表於 March 15, 2018 09:19 AM

Fin,
當代的建築師確實有個現象
都喜歡不斷的膨脹自己和作品
非得弄出超炫、超酷的造型不可
很多時候真的少了和美術館之間的協調和妥協
也造成了日後使用上的種種問題

前陣子去看了日月潭剛落成的向山行政中心
一棟造型很特別、施工品質非常精良的建築
但是我真的很擔心
人員真的進駐、開始使用之後
問題應該會很多吧

不知道這是建築師的問題
還是使用者的問題
是啊,兩邊都同樣有責任的

chris,
這不是重點啦

mrs.turtle 發表於 March 17, 2011 11:23 AM

对左下角那个散钱包很有兴趣,请问是啥牌子?

chris 發表於 March 17, 2011 10:08 AM

量身打造是個重點,
但就怕有時連美術館本身都不太知道自己要什麼

舉例我當義工的美術館,建築本身是個很好的空間
流動動線及空間塑造都很暢通
但是美術館在辦展覽時,因為怕展覽品受光,
將所有的窗戶封閉,改用投光照明
好像失去了當初建築師的原意,
但很難講這到底是誰沒考慮好。

Fin 發表於 March 17, 2011 02:03 AM
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