July 02, 2015

柳宗理回顧展講座

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陰曆過了一半的5月16日,剛好月圓,陽曆過了一半的7月1日,暑假開始,溫布敦創下138年來的最高溫紀錄,35.7℃,我們這小島上當然也正水深火熱中。台北街頭的高溫完全沒有逼退剛放暑假的小孩們,百貨公司場、捷運裡,凡是有冷氣的空間,滿是活蹦亂跳的大中小學生們,明天開始還會有指考完的另一群,熱啊。

一大早起床,比要去上學期最終一堂課的那位還早,搭了公車、轉了捷運,又來到松菸聽演講,想聽聽柳工業設計研究會詮釋的柳宗理。

演講的主題是「Beauty born, not made.-think by hand-」,熟知柳宗理設計的朋友,一定知道這是柳氏設計的最高指導原則,器物之美不是被設計師設計或繪出來的,而是在製作過程中自然而然產生的。今日講者,一位是正經嚴謹的追隨柳宗理27年的柳工業設計研究會設計總監藤田光一,一位是像過動兒一樣的柳宗理的長子柳新一。

藤田光一

藤田光一像個誠懇的設計人,按著稿子平穩的唸了半個小時,內容多半是在書中闡述過的柳宗理設計理念。設計師不是一個個人的工作,產品設計是人與人之間關係的連結,他們的設計工作室裡甚至沒有一張繪圖桌,完全是工作坊和工作現場,因為柳宗理的設計即是在不斷動手做模型的過程中完成的,強調設計是用「手」來思考,手的觸感會不斷反覆的記憶在設計者手中,後來也才能反應在使用者的手上,所以,柳氏設計絕不是紙上談兵,也不是一開始就繪圖,而是透過模型和不斷與工廠師傅來來回回之間完成的,3D科技的出現,確實是快速便利,但也是他們最不願意見到的快速設計。

藤田強調,做模型這件事,模型是要有意義的,不是量多就好,初步的模型不需要漂亮完美,反而是要粗糙,粗糙才能讓設計者一直回到設計的最初衷。模型的材料也不一定要是生產的真正材料,例如一開始可以用隨手可得的廢紙,接著才漸漸換成木料、PU、石膏等。設計者透過這些模型製作的過程,才能真正理解製作的細節,才能反映在產品設計的本身,因為這其中包含許多與工廠師傅討論出來的製程,另一方面也算是挑戰師傅的極限,相對的也能精進師傅們的生產技術。日本產品的設計與製作所堅持的品質與美感,大概就是在這樣的信念之下,一代一代累積下來的,當然,現在的情況也許已不同以往。

他也點出了當代設計師的盲點,(大概從Raymond Loewy以來的大半個世紀都這樣吧),一味的僅追求造型與商業市場,這樣的設計,在他的眼中絕不是設計,真正設計是要了解該社會的文化與歷史背景,乃至於人體工學的握姿、工廠的生產狀態、產品材料本身等等這些細節,才能琢磨出一個禁得起考驗的好設計。真正的設計並不單只在追求「美」,或者是想成名的作品,這些都不是設計。

另一個重點,物體的造型經由人工設計,會有很多不自然的線條,藤田光一強調設計師應經常觀察自然萬物或是其他文化的美,自然萬物的生命體、構造、造型都不是偶爾,而是必然的,那是它遵守自然法則後所演化出來的形體,設計者可以從中得到許多的刺激,但切記不是要你模仿,而是從這些形體上獲得靈感和培養美感,讓自己的視野不斷變大變寬,自然就能有更周全的想法產生。

就像小朋友畫圖,就是自然而然的想畫,不加思索的畫出來,不是為了甚麼而畫,才總是這麼有意思,到了大一點的年紀,開始會在意他人的觀感而畫時,就漸漸失去了畫圖本身的真義,設計也是同樣的道理,真正的美是自然而然的,並非是被製造出來的。

柳新一

第二位講者柳新一,民藝大師柳宗悅的長孫,設計大師柳宗理的長子,想必從小在龐大的壓力下成長,因此他人生的前半段並沒有選擇設計這條道路,他說已經有一個柳宗理,我必須有他兩倍的能力才能存在。嚴格的父親常考驗他對美感的認知,只要他考慮超過兩秒鐘,他父親就會回答「作為一個人,你不適合活在這個世界上」,假如他經過深思熟慮的告訴父親為什麼他認為這個東西美,他父親還是回答「作為一個人,你果然不適合活在這世界上。」,這會不會也是他完全不像嚴謹日本人形象的原因,真的很過動,感覺不拘小節,又總是哈哈大笑,手上拿了一本不斷掉出紙上的筆記本,一邊演講、一邊撿紙,噗。

柳新一認為台灣人對於民藝似乎有很大的誤解,緣起於近日連續許多媒體採訪他的問題,他也大聲強調無印良品絕對不是日本新民藝的展現。對柳宗理來說,設計出來的產品是不是民藝並不重要,重要的是作品是不是符合「機能美」與「用之美」,機能美指得是產品本身自己的狀態,用之美則是與使用者之間的關係,因此他強調一種「無意識的設計」,也就是自然而然所生產出來的器物,也就是無名設計的概念,一種沒有慾望、沒有目的的設計。如何消除想要設計的慾望,消除你是一個設計師的觀念,才能真正和其他人、和師傅一起合作。

柳宗悅與柳宗理父子之間,一直在爭論著「美」這件事,他們對於美學的概念不同,柳宗悅認為民藝是一種手工藝的展現,柳宗理則認為手工藝無法快速提供需求,必須靠工廠量產。但他們各自的努力與實踐,確實為日本的產品設計與傳統工藝留下了非常重要的一頁,也讓民藝的美,從特權階級中釋放到一般大眾手中,類似西方包浩斯的設計改革。

柳新一對於無印良品代表著日本設計非常不以為然,尤其是現在擔任他爺爺柳宗悅成立的日本民藝館館長的深澤直人,認為他的設計是在成就自己的設計,並不是真正的好設計。這段話應該是整場談話的高峰吧!?

柳工業設計研究會強調,用一年時間做出來的設計,這樣的產品大概也只有一年的壽命,如果用三年來做設計,可能就有十年的壽命,他們一直秉持這樣的信念在接設計案,常把業主給嚇跑,因此也導致財務危機,這大概也是柳新一放棄原來的事業,回來接任柳工業設計研究會理事長的原因,大力奔走推廣柳宗理的設計。

我很欣賞柳宗理的諸多設計,也崇尚柳宗悅的民藝之美,只是,固執的堅持那樣的美,在過去的年代或許可行,讓人擔心的,這樣的美會因為時代不同、會因為這顆地球快速轉動的讓人抓不住的同時,而消失不見。在這個製造業總是往低廉工資國家去的世代,柳宗理這個品牌,還能繼續維持三年才設計出一個產品嗎﹖

聽演講,總希望聽到一些書上讀不到的弦外之音,但也常常聽不太到精髓,不知道是不是在語言隔閡的口譯過程中,被稀釋了。還是,自己多讀幾本書吧。

以上,演講筆記。

ps.堂堂一個台創中心的座談場合,一連四支麥克風都出包,讓講者、譯者不斷分心,有點落漆啊。

由 mrs.turtle 發表於 July 2, 2015 03:41 PM
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jiajiagg 發表於 July 20, 2016 04:27 PM

同意你看法
好的設計是要尊重使用者
但可引導他往更好的方向

Diego 發表於 July 23, 2015 09:00 AM

2016,再接再厲~~~

mrs.turtle 發表於 July 13, 2015 10:37 AM

Federer功敗垂成

Diego 發表於 July 13, 2015 09:11 AM

Diego,
這裡說的不在意他人想法
指得是那些沽名釣譽的只想成名的設計師
真正好的設計師絕對是千方百計會去在意使用者想法的人

ps.週五的比賽一定非常精彩了

mrs.turtle 發表於 July 9, 2015 04:56 PM

有時候我也有點想不懂
設計不要在意他人想法
會不會變成孤芳自賞呢

Diego 發表於 July 3, 2015 09:15 PM

話說Roger Federer今年會不會再拿溫布敦冠軍呢?

Diego 發表於 July 3, 2015 09:10 PM
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